The outer moats of old Edo Castle, present Imperial Palace, which were built in1639, is about14 kilometers in perimeter. Old Edo Castle is surrounded twice by inner moats and outer moats to protect the castle against enemy attacks. Since the beginning of Japan's modernization after the end of samurai government, however, these outer moats have been utilized in many ways as they became useless. The inner moats, 4 kilometers in perimeter, have been kept as they were because they are important parts of the original castle structure. Most parts of the outer moats were reclaimed into roads, grounds and parks. Loop 2, so-called Sotobori-dori, is constructed just on the reclaimed moats. The Sumida and the Kanda aside, which are man-made river for flood control as well as for substitute outer moats, the outer moats still with water are no more than two small parts. The westside of the castle, just about 1.5 kilometers long in total and 100 meters wide.
The pictures show the parts of the moats still with water. They utilize even these old moats with water as a floating restaurant, boats for rent and fishing ponds.
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